Every wire and PCB trace is an antenna, according to a popular electrical industry joke, with the sole distinction being whether this was done on purpose or not.
Practically speaking, wiring for low-frequency systems is often regarded as “safe,” while impedance (Z) matching and other particular considerations are needed for wiring for higher-frequency systems.
With different rules-of-thumb in place, it’s not exactly clear where the cut-off is between these two sorts of circuits, as [Sebastian] over at Baltic Lab explains.
According to a widely accepted rule, if the critical length of a PCB trace (lcrit) is 1/10th of the wavelength (), no impedance matching between the trace and load is required.
But is this generalization accurate? Calculations show that the match between the trace and load impedance is the sole circumstance in which the length of the PCB trace is unimportant.
IMPEDANCE MATCHING A PCB TRACE
These calculations show that the 1/16 rule is preferable to the 1/10 rule if your goal is a mismatch loss of less than 0.1 dB. It may be wise to make the PCB’s traces wider in this situation.
But in the end, you must know what is ideal for your design because every project has different needs. Even if the calculations are accurate, there is never a solid reason to forego.
The physical board measurement, especially given how the dielectric constant of FR4 PCB material can vary significantly between various manufacturers and batches.
Heading image: Input impedance plotted as a function of trace impedance for trace lengths of 1/10, 1/16, and 1/20 of a wavelength. (Source: Baltic Labs
When the operating frequency of the signal being transmitte or received.
Approaches a level at which the effects of signal reflections and issues with signal integrity. Become significant, impedance matching in PCB traces becomes unavoidable.
This is especially significant in rapid advanced circuits and RF (radio recurrence) circuits. We should dig into the subtleties:
Frequency-High Signals: Transmission line effects become significant. When the signal frequency and signal transition rise time are comparable, as is frequently the case in high-speed digital circuits.
At these frequencies, signal reflections, crosstalk, and attenuation occur. As a result of the physical characteristics of the traces beginning to behave like transmission lines.
RF Systems: In radio recurrence (RF) circuits, impedance matching is essential to forestall. Signal reflections and to augment power move among parts and transmission lines.
Befuddles can prompt standing waves, signal misfortune, and decreased generally speaking framework execution.
IMPEDANCE MATCHING A PCB TRACE
Transmission Line Impacts:
Impedance bungles can cause signal reflections, where a part of the signal is sent back towards. The source because of the impedance intermittence.
These reflections can misshape the sign waveform, lessen signal quality, and possibly cause timing mistakes in advanced circuits.
Signal Trustworthiness: Impedance jumbles can likewise prompt other sign honesty issues like ringing, overshoot, and undershoot. These impacts can bring clamor into the sign and diminish the dependability of the circuit.
Impedance matching can be use in some situations, such as RF circuits. To help maximize the amount of power that is transfer from the source to the load.
This is essential for effective energy transmission and appropriate circuit operation.
Designers frequently use transmission line theory and design methods. To address these issues and ensure that the characteristic impedance of the traces matches.
The impedance of the source and load components. To attain the correct impedance value, this includes carefully choosing trace widths, dielectric constants, and other characteristics.